When the child completes the second year of life the body size becomes slower. The bottom part of the body is extended and the phase of short-legged infancy is now in the past. The child has already obtained all of the first dentition. Now it can eat comfortably and safely almost all foods. His body slowly begins to obtain its final appearance as an adult.
All changes of this period are mostly a result of training and experience, rather than maturation, as happened until now. Movements become more convenient, but mainly with significantly greater efficiency. The child achieves balance and coordination and his movements are made with precision, stability and comfort. He can run and accelerate or slow his steps down at will and with convenience, turning corners, even if they are steep, balances on one leg, suddenly stops, etc. The child goes up and down the stairs without support, alternating feet on stairs. The control of movements is visible in painting also, he can design an object, giving to it a name also the child can recreate from memory a circle. The self-service also follows the same pattern of improvement. He eats by himself with greater convenience, he can at least partially- be clothed alone, he uses the toilet, he can wash his hands etc.
Thought and imagination
At this stage play an important role the language, imagination and symbolic thought. The key to child development is the memory recall, that is the child's ability to record events and withdraw them whenever he wants. Also, at the age of three, the child uses symbolic games, for example to pretend that one object is another one, the doll is a train or the book is a home, etc. Another important characteristic of this age is that the child understands and interprets everything around him in a completely self-centered way. This is not selfishness, but the child's inability to understand that not everyone is the same and that he is not the center of the universe! But, the most amazing changes and conquests of this period happen in the child’s language communication. The articulation is improved, the acquisition of grammatical rules is a fact, the vocabulary is enriched, as the child of three years can use pronouns, use the singular, ask questions and plural with ease, etc.
The characteristic of this period in the child’s emotional development is the strengthening of his Ego and the simultaneous autonomy tendency he demonstrates. Tenacity, intensity , perseverance, disobedience, negativity, competition, jealousy, explosive reactions, anger, fear, often unjustified, make their appearance, creating concerns and anxiety for parents.
Sociability and friends
The group of children who are of the same age begins to play a huge role for the three year old child. Indeed, the role of group functions as a regulator in relation to the family. That means that children, being members of a group of other children of the same age, who meet the same requirements and receive the same influences. So for example the spoiled child will learn how to share, how to wait for his turn, not to react when it is not the focus, etc. The neglected child, respectively, will find understanding, companionship, acceptance, love. The childrens’ relationships at this stage are interpersonal and for the first time the first cases of apparent adhesion to other children will appear.